Leonardo E. Figueroa:
Orthogonal polynomial projection error measured in Sobolev norms in the unit disk
We study approximation properties of weighted $L^2$-orthogonal projectors onto the space of polynomials of degree less than or equal to $N$ on the unit disk where the weight is of the generalized Gegenbauer form $x \mapsto (1-|x|^2)^\alpha$. The approximation properties are measured in Sobolev-type norms involving canonical weak derivatives, all measured in the same weighted $L^2$ norm. Our basic tool consists in the analysis of orthogonal expansions with respect to Zernike polynomials. The sharpness of the main result is proved in some cases and otherwise strongly hinted at by reported numerical tests. A number of auxiliary results of independent interest are obtained including some properties of the uniformly and non-uniformly weighted Sobolev spaces involved, a Markov-type inequality, connection coefficients between Zernike polynomials and relations between the Fourier–Zernike expansions of a function and its derivatives.